Maintenance Tips for your Air Conditioners



Central air conditioners have two separate components: the condenser and the evap­orator. The condenser unit is usually located outside the house on a concrete slab. The evaporator coil is mounted in the plenum or main duct junction above the furnace.

Most central air conditioners are connected to a home's forced-air distribution system. Thus, the same motor, blower, and ductwork used for heating are used to distribute cool air from the air conditioning system. When a central air conditioner is operating, hot air inside the house flows to the furnace through the return-air duct. The hot air is moved by the blower across the cooled evaporator coil in the plenum and is then delivered through ducts to cool the house. When the air conditioner works but the house doesn't cool, the problem is probably in the distribution system.

Both the evaporator and the condenser are sealed. Therefore, a professional service person should be called for almost any maintenance other than routine cleaning. Central air conditioners should be professionally inspected and adjusted before the beginning of every cooling season. However, don't let your maintenance end with this annual checkup. While there aren't many repairs you can make yourself, there are specific maintenance procedures you can follow to keep your system operating at peak efficiency.

An air conditioner's filters, coils, and fins require regular maintenance for the unit to function effectively and efficiently throughout its years of service. Neglecting necessary maintenance ensures a steady decline in air conditioning performance while energy use steadily increases. 

Air Conditioner Filters

The most important maintenance task that will ensure the efficiency of your air conditioner is to routinely replace or clean its filters. Clogged, dirty filters block normal airflow and reduce a system's efficiency significantly. With normal airflow obstructed, air that bypasses the filter may carry dirt directly into the evaporator coil and impair the coil's heat-absorbing capacity. Replacing a dirty, clogged filter with a clean one can lower your air conditioner's energy consumption by 5% to 15%.

For central air conditioners, filters are generally located somewhere along the return duct's length. Common filter locations are in walls, ceilings, furnaces, or in the air conditioner itself. Room air conditioners have a filter mounted in the grill that faces into the room.

Some types of filters are reusable; others must be replaced. They are available in a variety of types and efficiencies. Clean or replace your air conditioning system's filter or filters every month or two during the cooling season. Filters may need more frequent attention if the air conditioner is in constant use, is subjected to dusty conditions, or you have fur-bearing pets in the house.

Air Conditioner Coils

The air conditioner's evaporator coil and condenser coil collect dirt over their months and years of service. A clean filter prevents the evaporator coil from soiling quickly. In time, however, the evaporator coil will still collect dirt. This dirt reduces airflow and insulates the coil, reducing its ability to absorb heat. To avoid this problem, check your evaporator coil every year and clean it as necessary.

Outdoor condenser coils can also become very dirty if the outdoor environment is dusty or if there is foliage nearby. You can easily see the condenser coil and notice if dirt is collecting on its fins.

You should minimize dirt and debris near the condenser unit. Your dryer vents, falling leaves, and lawn mower are all potential sources of dirt and debris. Cleaning the area around the coil, removing any debris, and trimming foliage back at least 2 feet (0.6 meters) allow for adequate airflow around the condenser.

Coil Fins

The aluminum fins on evaporator and condenser coils are easily bent and can block airflow through the coil. Air conditioning wholesalers sell a tool called a "fin comb" that will comb these fins back into nearly original condition.


Condensate Drains

  • Occasionally pass a stiff wire through the unit's drain channels. Clogged drain channels prevent a unit from reducing humidity, and the resulting excess moisture may discolor walls or carpet.

 

  • Window Seals for Room Air Conditioners At the start of each cooling season, inspect the seal between the air conditioner and the window frame to ensure it makes contact with the unit's metal case. Moisture can damage this seal, allowing cool air to escape from your house.

 

  • Preparing for Winter In the winter, either cover your room air conditioner or remove and store it. Covering the outdoor unit of a central air conditioner will protect the unit from winter weather and debris.

 

  • Hiring a Professional When your air conditioner needs more than regular maintenance, hire a professional service technician. A well-trained technician will find and fix problems in your air conditioning system.

Caution:
Before doing any work on an air conditioning system, make sure the power to the system, both to the condenser and to the evaporator assembly, is turned off.

How to clean the indoor unit (filters and louvres)

  • Clean the indoor unit dust filters

 

  • The indoor air conditioner unit has dust filters that need regular cleaning. The more clogged the filter, the harder the air conditioner has to work to push air through it. That can mean higher running costs.
  • It's usually a simple matter of popping open the plastic cover and removing the filter (there may be more than one).


Manufacturers usually recommend that you clean the dust filters every few weeks, but it really depends how often you use the air conditioner. Simply put, the more you use it, the more often you should clean the filters. At the least, aim to clean them a couple of times a year. For example, if you mainly use the unit in summer, clean the filters in spring so it's ready for the peak season, and again when the hot season is over.

Some models also have an air purification filter (such as an ionising filter) that can be removed and cleaned; this type of filter will eventually need to be replaced, perhaps every year or two, depending on usage.

Check the instructions for how to clean or replace this filter.

  • Take the dust filters outside for a good brush or shake. They can usually also be vacuumed for a thorough clean; use the vacuum cleaner's dusting brush head if you have one.

 

  • If the dust filters are very dirty and grimy, you can wash them in warm water with some mild detergent and rinse them clean. Make sure they are completely dry before putting them back in the unit.


How to clean your air conditioner's louvres

  • You may also be able to remove the indoor unit's louvres (the oscillating blades that direct the air flow). Give them, and the space behind them inside the unit, a thorough clean with a dry cloth or with the vacuum cleaner. Again, make sure the unit is powered off before you do this.



How to clean the outdoor unit

  • Keep the outdoor compressor unit clear of surrounding grass and plants, and brush away dust, leaves and cobwebs regularly.
  • Running a vacuum cleaner over the air intake can help clear dust from inside.

We don't recommend that you open up the unit to clean its internal components; leave that to a professional service.

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